Boiler Water Treatment
Boiler Water Treatment - STPA reviews chemistry monitoring and control systems and practices, and lay-up chemistry practices and performs boiler inspections, tube failure analyses, and on-site water chemistry seminars for operations and chemistry personnel.
Boiler Tube Failures Analysis - We performs metallurgical examinations to evaluate boiler tube failures from overheating, fatigue, and corrosion. Boiler tube corrosion mechanisms have included caustic gouging, acid phosphate corrosion, acid pitting, hydrogen damage, corrosion fatigue, and several types of fireside corrosion. Corrosion fatigue, thermal fatigue, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC), pitting, and hydrogen damage have caused HRSG tube failures.
Chemical Cleaning - STPA authored Guidelines for Chemical Cleaning of Fossil-Fueled Steam Generation Equipment and is one of the authors for Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) Chemical Cleaning Guidelines for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). STPA has assisted in the performance of chemical cleaning operations of a variety of equipment - including boilers, superheaters, reheaters and cooling water piping systems. To effect a successful cleaning operation, STPA assists the client with the following prerequisites:
Chemistry Monitoring and Control - Recommend proper sampling procedures and frequencies, on-line analyzers and in-house laboratory testing; identify other analysis needs. Establish chemistry limits and action levels. Develop site-specific chemistry response procedures. Prepare laboratory manuals and quality control programs. (STPA authored Guideline Manual on Instrumentation and Control for Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry for EPRI).
Condenser Tube Failures - Condenser tube corrosion, fatigue, and cracking can occur in steam surface condensers, condenser water systems, cooling tower water systems, service water systems, and air-cooled condensers. Corrosion mechanisms typically include pitting, erosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), sulfide attack, denickelification, dezincification, ammonia grooving, and stress corrosion cracking.
Cooling/Heating Water Treatment - STPA has authored papers and performed presentations on cooling water treatment related topics for the International Water Conference, the Building Owners and Management Association (BOMA), and the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). STPA performs water treatment practice reviews, develops treatment specifications, reviews bid and treatment system performance, diagnoses chemistry control and biological control problems, performs failure analyses and/or periodic condition assessments of pipe and tube samples, and assists in the selection of materials for particular cooling and heating applications.
Damage Assessment or Failure Analysis- STPA has been involved in damage assessments of boilers and other steam generators, superheaters, and condensers involving corrosion, deposition or scaling, fouling and carryover. Damage assessments may require visual inspection of equipment, chemistry reviews, discussions with personnel, and/or review of nondestructive and destructive testing (failure analyses) results. Failure analysis may be performed by our laboratory staff (see laboratory services page). Based on damage assessment findings, recommended corrective action (e.g., guidance in materials selection and upgrading) can be provided.
Services (Water Analysis, Deposit Analysis, & Metallurgical Analysis) - The following analytical services are available from our laboratory
staff. Metallurgical examinations and failure analysis; Deposit density
or deposit weight analysis; Deposit composition analyses; Analysis of
water samples including well and surface waters, potable water, softened
or demineralized water, feedwater, boiler water, condensate, steam,
cooling water, heating water, process water, and wastewater; Chemical
cleaning solutions; Corrosion coupon preparation and processing; Field
sampling and analysis.
Makeup Water Treatment - This includes clarification, filtration, biological control, oxidation, oxidant and/or gas removal, softening and demineralization by ion exchange or reverse osmosis. STPA authored the Revised Guidelines for Makeup Water Treatment for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).This includes the latest technologies such as packed bed demineralizers, continuous electrodeionization (CEDI) units, ultrafilters, nanofilters, UV disinfection systems, and chlorine dioxide and other alternative oxidants. STPA performs makeup water treatment system evaluations, evaluates water reuse at zero liquid discharge (ZLD) facilities, recommends makeup treatment system equipment and practices, and develops and reviews makeup water treatment system specifications. STPA also can troubleshoot makeup water treatment system performance problems.
& Engineering Support Activities - STPA can perform industry
surveys, determine best water treatment practices, evaluate staffing
requirements and qualifications, reduce costs without compromising technical
performance criteria, and appraise new plants, systems, and/or equipment
- including provision of field assistance during startup operations.
STPA can provide research, evaluation, depositions, and testimony in
areas of our expertise.
Recovery Boiler Water Treatment - STPA engineers have presented the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) Kraft Recovery Short Course Session on Recovery Boiler Water Treatment since 1994. STPA also was invited to discuss this topic at the 1996 AF&PA BLRBAC Corrosion Seminar.
Steam Purity Evaluation - For steam purity studies, STPA reviews the sampling system, monitors key chemistry and operational variables and collects samples for subsequent laboratory evaluation. Results are reviewed, steam purity assessed, and causes of carryover and potential corrective action are recommended.
Steam/Water Cycle Chemistry - STPA reviews chemistry log sheets, chemistry test procedures, testing frequency, control parameters, limits, response procedures, on-line instrumentation, sampling and sample conditioning systems (authored Guideline Manual on Instrumentation and Control for Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry for EPRI), chemical usage, chemical feed equipment, condensate polisher performance and operation, and startup and lay-up practices for components of the steam/water cycle. STPA provides recommendations to improve steam/water cycle chemistry control. STPA performs inspections of boilers, HRSGs, deaerators, and condensers.
Training - STPA provides seminars on makeup water treatment, steam/water cycle chemistry control and other related areas within our area of expertise. Seminars can be tailored to operations or chemistry personnel.
Treatability Assessment - STPA performs treatability assessments of water or wastewater. These involve characterizing the raw water sources, defining effluent water purity limits, developing conceptual design, establishing design specification, and reviewing design proposals, drawings and procedures.
Water & Waste Management & Treatment - In addition to simply evaluating water treatment and water reuse strategies (e.g., rinse recycle, noncontact cooling water recovery, etc.,), STPA performs water management studies at conventional and zero liquid discharge facilities which can include a variety of services in this area including constructing water balances, appraising water reuse options, assessing waste treatability, examining wastewater treatment facilities and process, examining flue gas desulfurization operations as they relate to water usage and treatment, appraising discharge elimination or minimization, evaluation of brine concentrators and crystallizer systems, and evaluating permitting and related regulatory compliance criteria.
|Technical StaffLaboratory ServicesEmployment OpportunitiesContact Us|
Boiler Water Treatment | Cooling/Heating Water Treatment | Makeup Water Treatment
Recovery Boiler Water Treatment | Water Treatment Training | Water & Waste Management
Metallurgical Analysis | Deposit Weight Analysis | Water Analysis | Boiler Tube Analysis
Chemical Cleaning | Steam/Water Cycle Chemistry | Condenser Tube Failures | Site Map
1915 Aliceanna Street Baltimore, Maryland 21231 410-327-3500 (voice) 410-327-7506 (fax)
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